By P. Turner
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Additional info for Animals in Scientific Research: An Effective Substitute for Man?: Proceedings of a Symposium held in April 1982 under the auspices of the Humane Research Trust
After fixation and staining, the cells are then scored for the presence of chromosome aberrations of various types and the relationship between the dosage of the test compound and the quantitative response of aberration yield determined. This type of assay may also be used with samples of human blood in which cell division is stimulated by the addition of the drug phytohaemoglutinin. Assays for the production of chromosome aberrations represent a vital part of a genetic toxicology testing programme as this type of genetic event cannot be observed in the bacteria because of their size and chromosomal organisation.
Tissue repair. Several phase 2 tests in sequence might be necessary to assess the relevance of a reproducible positive result in a particular phase 1 test. The great complexity of factors that may influence the development of toxicity makes the development of an adequate phase 2 test approach exceedingly difficult and it is apparent that for some types of effect in vivo tests will continue to be necessary. Since very few of the crucial initiating events which may lead to the development of the common toxic lesions have yet been characterised, let alone the key factors which influence the progression of the lesion, it is very unlikely that even a primarily in vitro approach to toxicity testing could be adopted with confidence in the foreseeable future .
G. Hamawalt et al; 1979). This process of DNA repair activity can be assayed as an indirect measure of DNA lesion formation and exposure to be potentially genotoxic agent. DNA repair activity can be assayed directly by the measurement of the incorporation of radiolabelled nucleotides into the region of DNA repair, a process which is called unscheduled DNA synthesis because it occurs outside the normal DNA synthetic period (Rasmussen and Painter, 1966). Indirect measurements of DNA repair may be performed by the use of pairs of strains of suitable microbial cultures such as bacteria, one of which is repair proficient and the other of which is defective in one of the enzymes of DNA repair.
Animals in Scientific Research: An Effective Substitute for Man?: Proceedings of a Symposium held in April 1982 under the auspices of the Humane Research Trust by P. Turner