By Andrew Gelman, Jeronimo Cortina
To foster a deeper knowing of the interconnection of the social sciences, economists may still recognize the place old information come from, sociologists may still understand how to imagine like economists, political scientists would get advantages from knowing how types are validated in psychology, historians should still learn the way political strategies are studied, psychologists may still comprehend sociological theories, and so on. This review via fashionable social scientists offers an obtainable, non-technical feel of ways quantitative study is finished within the social sciences. Upon completing this ebook, the reader must have a feeling of the various types and other ways of pondering in economics, background, sociology, political technology and psychology, which in flip they could carry again to their significant box.
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Additional resources for A Quantitative Tour of the Social Sciences
From a game-theoretic standpoint, cooperation has always been viewed as a puzzle, and this puzzle has been given various names. The “free rider problem” refers to the logical motivation of any individual to sit lazily while the heavy lifting is done by others. In a political context, free riding might mean avoiding voting, paying taxes, or military service. The “tragedy of the commons” (Hardin 1968) describes what happens when people behave selfishly – for example, consuming more than their fair share of resources or polluting a common water supply – under the expectation that they might as well act selfishly, since others will do so if they do not.
Getting back to representation, this theory suggests that the median voter is strongly represented by the political system, whereas voters away from the center have no representation. This translates into less representation for groups such as African Americans and other ethnic minorities whose political views are far from the center. 2. 3 shows some data based on votes in the House of Representatives in 1992. The 435 members of Congress were ranked from left to right based on their roll-call votes (Poole and Rosenthal 1997), and this is plotted versus the liberalness or conservativeness of their districts, as measured by an adjusted version of Bill Clinton’s share of the presidential vote in 1992.
More fundamentally, representation can be defined in relative or absolute terms. Fairness requires that any person or group be represented just as much as any other, but on an absolute scale it is possible for all the citizens of a country to be more or less represented by its political system. ) What’s best for you individually might not be best for your group. For example, maybe you would rather not pay taxes, but if nobody pays taxes, we’re What’s in a Number? 19 all in trouble. This is also true of representation.
A Quantitative Tour of the Social Sciences by Andrew Gelman, Jeronimo Cortina